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Distillation and Rectification - Emil Kirschbaum

Distillation and Rectification
A. Fundamentals - B. Theory - I. Units - II. Interrelation between vapor concentration and partial pressure of vapor in multicomponent mixtures - III. Equilibrium of boiling multicomponent mixtures - IV. Partial condensation of mixtures - V. Heat of evaporation of mixtures - C. Separation of liquids by simple distillation; the simple pot still - I. Data for computation - II. Design of kettle stills - III. Separation by distillation and partial condensation - D. The rectifying column - I. Effect of rectifying plates - II. Hookup of reflux condensers - III. Layout of a batch-type distillation unit - IV. Computation of the number of plates for a batch type distillation unit - V. Minimum reflux ratio and actual reflux ratio for batch-type rectifiers - VI. The rectification mechanism on interchanger plates - VII. Heat consumption and reboil heat for a pot still and rectifying column - E. Continuous distilling equipment having rectifying and stripping sections - I. Determination of the number of plates - II. Minimum reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit for separating binary mixtures - III. The actual reflux ratio of a continuous rectifying unit - IV. Mass-concentration interrelations - V. Heat requirements - VI. Reduction of heat requirements - VII. Layout of continuous rectifying equipment for handling binary mixtures - VII I. Special cases - IX. Location of the feed point - X. Heat losses - XI. Variation of the molar heat of evaporation in the interchanger column - F. Treatment of rectification using enthalpy-concentration diagrams - I. The rectifying column - II. The continuous rectifying unit - G. Separating mixtures containing more than two components - I. Eliminating small amounts of certain components in a mixture - II. Separation of ideal ternary mixtures - III. Number of rectifying columns required to separate multicomponent mixtures and their hookup - IV. Rectifying ideal mixtures of more than three components - H. Determining the dimensions of rectifying columns with interchanger plates; plate efficiency - I. Cap-type and tunnel-type plates - II. Sieve plates - III. Comparison of cap-type and sieve-type plates - IV. Influence of the direction of flow of the phases on the rectification effect of a plate; liquid mixing, vapor mixing, counterflow arid parallel flow - V. Rectifying plate design - J. Rectification in packed columns - I. General remarks - II. Determining the column height by means of the corresponding theoretical plate number; different types of packings - III. Determination of column height from the heat transmission coefficient between phases; liquid distribution within the column - IV. Pressure loss in packed columns - K. Details - I. Heat exchangers - II. Control equipment - L. Molecular distillation - M. Appendix - I. Equilibrium data for binary mixtures - II. Heats of evaporation of various materials at * 760 mm Hg - III. Specific heats and specific weights of liquids - IV. Molecular weights - V. Conversion tables - N. Review by the translator of progress made since the original publication - Index -


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